Krisp is synonymous with on-device technologies, led by its innovative Voice AI solutions. With a reputation built on delivering superior performance and privacy-centric features for voice clarity, including background noise and voice cancellation during calls, Krisp’s on-device approach has long been one of its competitive advantages and unique value propositions for users. The Krisp app expanded its offerings to include its AI Meeting Assistant, incorporating on-device speech-to-text (STT)  and other voice productivity technologies. Leveraging the expertise acquired through developing in-house, state-of-the-art solutions, the aim was not merely to match server-side transcription providers, but surpass them in terms of accuracy, affordability and privacy, setting a new standard for on-device STT service.


The on-device requirement has in many ways shaped the technical specifications of the technology and posed a series of challenges that the team has been able to tackle head-on, working through various iterations. The path to achieving high quality on-device STT continues, as the Krisp app has now transcribed over 15 million hours of calls and the company is now making this technology for its license partners via on-device SDKs. Let’s dive into the specific challenges Krisp worked through to bring this technology to market. 

Challenges and solutions to on-device STT

Resource constraints

Without diving into the specifics of on-device STT technology and its architecture, one of the first and obvious constraints that the development had to be guided by was the computational resource. On-device STT systems operate within the confines of limited resources, including CPU, memory, and power. Unlike cloud-based solutions, which can leverage expansive server infrastructure, on-device systems must deliver comparable performance with significantly restricted resources. This constraint necessitates the optimization of algorithms, models, and processing pipelines to ensure efficient resource utilization without compromising accuracy and responsiveness. In many use cases, STT would need to run alongside the Noise Cancellation and other technologies, which further impacts the overall available bandwidth of resources.

Model complexity and size

The effectiveness of STT models hinges on their complexity and size, with larger models generally exhibiting superior accuracy and robustness. However, deploying large models on-device presents a formidable challenge, as it exacerbates memory and processing overheads. Balancing model complexity and size becomes paramount, requiring developers to employ techniques like model pruning, quantization, and compression to achieve optimal trade-offs between performance and resource utilization.

In order to achieve high quality transcripts and feature-rich speech-to-text systems, there is a need to build complex network architectures consisting of a number of  AI models and algorithms. Such models include language models, punctuation and text normalization, speaker diarization and personalization (custom vocabulary) models, each presenting unique technical challenges and performance considerations.

The technology that Krisp employs both in its app and SDKs includes a combination of all of the above-mentioned technologies, as well as other adjacent algorithms to ensure readability and grammatical coherence of the final output.

The language model enhances transcription accuracy by predicting the likelihood of word sequences based on contextual and syntactic information. It helps in disambiguating words and improving the coherence of transcribed text. The Punctuation & Capitalization Model predicts the appropriate punctuation marks and capitalization based on speech patterns and semantic cues, enhancing the readability and comprehension of transcribed text. While the Inverse Text Normalization model standardizes and formats transcribed text to adhere to predefined conventions, such as converting numbers to textual representations or vice versa, expanding abbreviations, and correcting spelling errors. For cases where customers might have domain-specific terminology or proper names that are not widely recognized by the standard models, Krisp also provides Custom Vocabulary support. 

Apart from the features ensuring text readability and accuracy, a major important technology included in Krisp’s on-device STT is Speaker Diarization. This model segments speech into distinct speaker segments, enabling the identification and differentiation of multiple speakers within a conversation or audio stream. It is crucial for speaker-dependent processing and improving transcription accuracy in multi-speaker scenarios.

Real or near real-time processing for on-device STT

Depending on a use case, on-device STT technology might have to deliver real or near real-time processing capabilities to enable seamless user interactions across diverse applications. Achieving low-latency speech recognition necessitates streamlining inference pipelines, minimizing computational overheads, and optimizing signal processing algorithms. Moreover, the heterogeneity of device architectures and hardware accelerators further complicates real-time performance optimization, requiring tailored solutions for different platforms and configurations. Krisp developers have achieved a delicate balance between latency, selecting optimal model combinations, ensuring processing synergy, and addressing the scalability and flexibility of the pipeline to accommodate various use-cases.

Robustness to variability

With a global and multi-domain user-base, there is an inherent variability of speech arising from diverse accents, vocabularies, environments, and speaking styles. Our on-device STT technology must exhibit robustness to such variability to ensure consistent performance across disparate contexts. This entails training models on diverse datasets, augmenting training data to encompass various scenarios, and implementing robust feature extraction techniques capable of capturing salient speech characteristics while mitigating noise and various device or network-dependent distortions.

In addition to addressing resource constraints and optimizing algorithms for on-device STT, Krisp prioritizes rigorous speech recognition testing to ensure its technology’s robustness across diverse accents, environments, and speaking styles.

Integration & embeddability of on-device STT

Along with being on-device, the technologies underlying the Krisp app AI Meeting Assistant are also designed with embeddability in mind. Integrating on-device STT technology into communication applications and devices presents a range of additional challenges, all of which Krisp has tackled. Resources must be carefully allocated to ensure optimal performance without compromising existing customer infrastructure. Customization and configuration options are essential to meet the diverse needs of end-users while maintaining scalability and performance across large-scale deployments. Security and compliance considerations demand robust encryption and privacy measures to protect sensitive data. Seamless integration with existing infrastructure, including telephony systems and collaboration tools, requires interoperability standards, codec support and integration frameworks.

One prevailing requirement for communication services is for on-device STT technology to be functional on the web. This presents a new set of challenges in terms of further resource optimization, as well as compatibility across diverse web platforms, browsers, frameworks and devices. 

Bringing it all together

While the integration of on-device STT technology into communication applications and devices presents challenges and requires meticulous resource utilization, customization, and seamless interoperability, Krisp has addressed these challenges and today delivers embedded STT solutions that enhance the functionality and value proposition for applications and their end-users.

Try next-level on-device STT, audio and voice technologies

Krisp licenses its SDKs to embed directly into applications and devices. Learn more about Krisp’s SDKs and begin your evaluation today.